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 After Jesus and his disciples had observed the Passover meal in an upper room in a home in southwest Jerusalem, they traveled to the Mount of Olives, northeast of the city (Fig 1). (Owing to various adjustments in the calendar, the years of Jesus' birth and death remain controversial.29  However, it is likely that Jesus was born in either 4 or 6 BC and died in 30 AD.11, 29  During the Passover observance in 30 AD, the Last Supper would have been observed on Thursday,

Copyright 1986, Journal of the American Medical Association
Fig 1. Map of Jerusalem at time of Christ.
 Jesus left Upper Room and walked with disciples to Mount of Olives and Garden of Gethsemane (1), where he was arrested and taken first to Annas and then to Caiaphas (2). After first trial before political Sanhedrin at Caiaphas' residence, Jesus was tried again before religious Sanhedrin, probably at Temple (3) Next, he was taken to Pontius Pilate (4), who sent him to Herod Antipas (5). Herod returned Jesus to Pilate (6), and Pilate finally handed over Jesus for scourging at Fortress of Antonia and for crucifixion at Golgotha (7). (Modified from Pfeiffer et al.

 April 6 [Nisan 13], and Jesus would have been crucified on Friday, April 7 [Nisan 14].29   At nearby Gethsemane, Jesus, apparently knowing that the time of his death was near, suffered great mental anguish, and, as described by the physician Luke, his sweat became like blood.

 Although this is a very rare phenomenon, bloody sweat (hematidrosis or hemohidrosis) may occur in highly emotional states or in persons with bleeding disorders.18-20  As a result of hemorrhage into the sweat glands, the skin becomes fragile and tender.2,11  Luke's description supports the diagnosis of hematidrosis rather than eccrine chromidrosis (brown or yellow-green sweat) or stigmatization (blood oozing from the palms or elsewhere).18-21  Although some authors have suggested that hematidrosis produced hypovolemia, we agree with Bucklin 5 that Jesus' actual blood loss probably was minimal. However, in the cold night air, 1 it may have produced chills.

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A Physician Analyzes The Crucifixion, by Dr. C. Truman Davis
Medical Aspects Of The Crucifixion Of Jesus Christ, Compiled by David Terasaka, M.D.
If Dr. Seuss wrote the Crucifixion in the Bible

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1. Matthew 26:17-27:61, Mark 14:12-15:47, Luke 22:7-23:56, John 13:1-19:42, in The Holy Bible (New International Version). Grand Rapids, Mieh, Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1978. 18. Allen AC: The Skin: A Clinicopathological Treatise, ed 2 New York, Grune & Stratton Inc. 1967, pp 745-747- 35. Arndt WF, Gingrich FW: A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature. University of Chicago Press, 1957, p 673
2. Lumpkin R: The physical suffering of Christ. J Med. Assoc Ala 1978,47:8-10,47. 19. Sutton RL Jr: Diseases of the Skin, ed 11. st Louis, CV Mosby Co. 1956, pp 1393-1394. 36. Brown F. Driver SR, Briggs CA: A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament With an Appendix Containing the Biblical Aramaic. Oxford, England, Clarendon Press, 1953, pp 841, 854.
3 Johnson CD: Medical and cardiological aspects of the passion and crucifixion of Jesus, the Christ. Bol Assoc. Med. PR 1978;70:97-102. 20. Scott CT: A case of haematidrosis. Br Med. J 1918;1:532-533. 37. Robertson AT: A Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research. Nashville, Tenn, Broadman Press, 1931, pp 417-427.
4. Barb AA: The wound in Christ's side. J Warburg Courtauld Inst. 1971;34:320-321. 21. Klauder JV: Stigmatization. Arch DermatoI Syphilol 1938;37:650-659. .38. Jackson SM (ed): The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 1909, pp 312-314..
5. Bucklin R The legal and medical aspects of the trial and death of Christ. Sci Law 1970; 10:14-26. 22. Weaver KF: The mystery of the shroud. Natl Geogr 1980;157:730-753. 39. Kim H-S, Suzuki M, Lie JT, et al: Nonbacterial thrombotic endocarditis (NBTE) and dis-seminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): Autopsy study of 36 patients. Arch Pathol Lab Med 1977;101:65-68.
6. Mikulicz-Radeeki FV: The chest wound in the crucified Christ. Med News 1966;14:30-40. 23. Tzaferis V: Jewish tombs at and near Giv'at ha-Mivtar, Jerusalem. Israel Explor J 1970;20:18-32. 40. Becker AE, van Mantgem J-P: Cardiac tamponade: A study of 50 hearts. Eur J Cardiol 1975;3:349-358.
7. Davis CT: The crucifixion of Jesus: The passion of Christ from a medical point of view. Ariz Med 1965;22:183-187. 24. Haas N: Anthropological observations on the skeletal remains from Giv'at ha-Mivtar. Israel Explor J 1970;20:38-59.
8. Tenney SM: On death by crucifixion Am Heart J 1964;68:286-287. 25. McDowell J: The Resurrection Factor. San Bernardino, Calif, Here's Life Publishers, 1981 pp 20-53, 75-103.
9. Bloomquist ER: A doctor looks at crucifixion. Christian Herald, March 1964, pp 35, 46-48. 26. McDowell J: Evidence That Demands a Verdict: Historical Evidences for the Chnstian Faith. San Bernardino, Calif, Here's Life Publishers, 1979, pp 39-87, 141-263.
10. DePasquale NP, Burch GE: Death by crucifixion. Am Heart J 1963;66:434-435. 27. McDowell J: More Than a Carpenter. Wheaton, III, Tyndale House Publishers, 1977 pp 36-71, 89-100.
11. Barbet P: A Doctor at Calvary: The Passion of Out Lold Jesus Christ as Described by a Surgeon, Earl of Wicklow (trans) Garden City, NY, Doubleday Image Books 1953, pp 12-18 37-147, 159-175, 187-208. 28. Hengel M: Crucifixion in the Ancient World and the Folly of the Message of the Cross Bowden J (trans). Philadelphia, Fortress Press, 1977, pp 22-45, 86-90.
12. Primrose WB: A surgeon looks at the crucifixion. Hibbert J. 1949, pp 382-388.


29. Ricciotti G: The Life of Christ, Zizzamia AI (trans). Milwaukee, Bruce Publishing Co 1947, pp 29-57, 78-153, 161-167, 586-647.
13. Bergsma S: Did Jesus die of a broken heart? Calvin Forum 1948;14:163-167. 30. Pfeiffer CF, Vos HF, Rea J (eds): Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia. Chicago, Moody Press, 1975 pp 149-152, 404-405, 713-723, 1173-1174, 1520-1523.
14. Whitaker JR: The physical cause of the death of our Lord. Cath Manchester Guard 1937;15:83-91 . 31. Greenleaf S: An Examination of the Testimony of the Four Evangelists by the Rules of Evidence Administered in the Courts of Justice. Grand Rapids, Mich, Baker Book House, 1965, p29.
15. Clark CCP: What was the physical cause of the death of Jesus Christ? Med Rec 1890;38:543. 32. Hatch E, Redpath HA: A Concordance to the Septuagint and the Other Greek Versions of the Old Testament (Including the Apocryphal Books). Graz, Austria, Akademische Druce U Verlagsanstalt, 1975, p 1142.
16. Cooper HC: The agony of death by crucifixion. NY Med J 1883;38:150-153. 33. Wuest KS: Wuest Word Studies From the Greek New Testament for the English Reader Grand Rapids, Mich, WB Eerdmans Publisher 1973, vol 1, p 280.
17 Stroud W: Treatise on the Physical Cause of the Death of Chlist and Its Relation to the Principles and Practice of Christianity, ed 2. London, Hamilton & Adams, 1871, pp 28-156, 489-494. 34. Friedrich G: Theological Dictionary of the New Testament, Bremiley G (ed-trans). Grand Rapids, Mich, WB Eerdmans Publisher, 1971, vol 7, pp 572, 573, 632